Photography is a life for many people, and beginners want to know the fundamentals of photography. Photography is not just traveling and clicking in automatic mode by a camera. There are some basic rules and procedures for capturing a photo. In this post, we’ll discuss the fundamental of photography and what is inside a camera. It is always better to understand everything manually, so that you may control your camera functions effectively. We are mainly going to discuss shutter speed, ISO, and white balance, along with other essential functions of a camera for better photography.
The main three parameters in photography: shutter speed, aperture, and ISO and we’re going to discuss briefly.
Shutter speed measures how fast your shutter is or how long your shutter will open in a camera. In the case of mirrorless cameras, there is a mechanical cover in front of the sensor. In other words, it is the duration, the sensor stays often, and shutter speed is expressed in seconds.
What is Shutter Speed?
In reasonable condition, photographers like to take a photo in fractions of a second with faster shutter speed. A shutter speed with1/60 means a shutter will often last till one of 60 seconds. Therefore, it shows how long it will stay on. In case of prolonged exposure, your shutter will stay open for multiple seconds, for a few minutes, or even for hours if we are taking photos of stars or moon, etc.
Should I keep it high?
The longer your shutter stays open, you will receive more light, and the sensor will also collect more. The slower your shutter rate, the brighter your photo will be because you are allowing more lights the coming. This shutter speed also affects the motion blur of your images. If your shutter opens for multiple seconds, you are going to shake your hands even though if you have a stable and it will blur your images.
Appropriate Shutter Speed for a Bird
On the other hand, if you are dealing with a fast-moving object like a bird or a fast-moving train, you need a faster shutter speed to be breezy that motion. However, if you were taking still-life objects like flower or product photography using natural light conditions and were using a tripod, in such cases, you may use slow shutter speed. So, the shutter speed depends upon the objects you are focusing on and the type of object. When you are a must familiar with such shutter speed, you may choose different types of shutter speeds according to objects.
Other Consideration for Shutter Speed
There are some other considerations while taking a shutter speed like to focal length of the lens and aperture. So if you’re using a 400 millimeters lens or you are very much zoomed in, you need a higher shutter speed to minimize handshaking. If you are moving a little after so much zoomed in, it will make a larger moment in images.
Rule of Thumb
There is one rule of thumb that is your shutter speed should be minimum two times of the focal length of your lens. For example, if you have a 100 mm lens, then your shutter speed should be minimum 200 times and should be over 200. However, few people are very steady, and they can capture a steady image at the slower shutter speed. Again, what are lenses have image stabilizers inbuilt in the lenses? And if your hand sakes a little bit, it will adjust accordingly. So the shutter speed also plays a vital role with aperture and ISO.
What is Aperture?
The next object is the aperture, which is one of the uninsured parameters in digital cameras. It is expressed as a fraction of a number like F 1.4, F 1.8, F 4 like that. Aperture value slashes with the increasing number. So it represents how large the opening in the lenses or you may say the initial amount inside the lens. It is like one divided by f value. For example, if f is one, it is going to opening up a hundred percent. And if the f value is 2, it will open half of the hotel amount. A similar way, f nine will go to open a little amount of area in the lens. So it will affect the exposure in the images. Higher apertures lead to more dark exposure, and lower apertures let’s brighter exposure. So it affects the quality of the photograph.
Depth of Field
we often see a photo where the background is a blur or the foreground is a blur, and the subject is only in focus. This is due to the mainly shallow depth of field. And the depth of field is the main area in the photo where we focus. So when we have a very thin depth of field, or you may say the shallow depth of field, our aperture is very low set 1.8 or 1.2. In such cases, you are focusing only on the say eyes of a person, and all others become a blur. Now, if you want a wide focusing area, you have to increase your f-stop, and the focusing area will increase, and you are no able to look all other parts near the eyes, say your face or whole body clearly. So it’s a very creative tool and more attractive in photography.
Shallow Depth of Field
In a word, if you want a shallow depth of field, you need low F stops means lower aperture value that is bigger opening lense. These are three main parameters, or you may say pillars in photography. Now we try to combine all these
What is ISO in Photography
ISO stands for International standards organization. Earlier when we have film photography, it has certain speeds say ISO 400, ISO 200, ISO 100, and so on. ISO means the sensitivity of the film towards the light. The lower the number of ISO, the less sensitive it is towards the light. Keeping the same aperture value & shutter speed, higher ISO brings more brightness to the photo because your film is more sensitive to the light. However, the main problem with ISO is that higher ISO brings more digital noise like our sound. The noise level in a digital image also depends upon several factors like the quality of your camera. But all cameras with high ISO have some minimum level of digital noise at a certain level of ISO.
Should I always keep ISO 100?
We may also say that when the ISO and level are high, the pixels are not receiving the exact color they require. Now the question is why we can’t capture images at ISO 100 for the excellent quality? The answer is that your light condition is not always excellent. Sometimes, we have no control over the light condition, and we had to take images at a dark light.
So, in summary, the lower is the ISO value, the better quality photograph, and vice versa. So, you need to keep the ISO level as low as possible. However, if you’re shooting in daylight and outdoor you should keep your ISO 100 with low f-stop say f 1.8 for a portrait, and if you get too bright in images, you have to increase your shutter speed level.